This ITEM is a Chapter by Chapter SUMMARY for Advanced Practice Nursing 5th Edition by Hamric
This is a SUMMARY, on a Chapter by Chapter basis. It contains ONLY A SUMMARY of Each Chapter. See below Chapter 1 SAMPLE below so you know what to expect:
Advanced Practice Nursing, 5th Edition
Chapter 01: A Brief History of Advanced Practice Nursing in the United States
This chapter presents some highlights of the history of advanced practice nursing in the United States from the late nineteenth century to the present. It examines four established advanced practice roles—certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), certified nurse-midwives (CNMs), clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), and nurse practitioners (NPs)—in the context of the social, political, and economic environment of the time and within the context of the history of medicine, technology, and science. Legal issues and issues related to gender and health care manpower are considered.
(Please refer to PowerPoint Slides and Image Collection for additional resources.)
- Have students identify a specific advanced practice role to explore the history of the role. Have each student develop a timeline of the role throughout the history of the role. Small group discussions can be planned to compare and contrast the evolution of the roles related to the timeline. Have students identify critical points in the history of the role and its impact on advanced practice nursing today.
- Have each student interview an NP who was educated for this role in the early 1970s and have the NP describe the experience. Special attention should be given to asking about how the role was received by other nurses, nursing faculty, and physicians.
- Have each student write a short paper on one decade in the history of a particular role. For example, a nurse anesthetist student might write about nurse anesthetists at the Mayo Clinic in the 1910s or 1920s. An NP might write about the development of the Family Nurse Practitioner in the Frontier Nursing Service in the 1970s. (This could also be developed as a poster project and shared with the class.)
- If there is a nurse historian in your school or in a nearby university, invite him or her to join your class for a discussion of this chapter. Explore online resources for identifying and contacting a nurse historian. Be specific in identifying a nurse historian who is an expert in the area of advanced practice nursing.
- Have students explore the impact on war activities on the roles of advanced practice nursing.
Have students identify a specific war and describe the economic and social factors of that time period. Compare and contrast the impact of this war and these factors on each of the roles of advanced practice nursing. Small group discussions can be used to share information about different war periods.
- Compare and contrast the evolution of educational requirements for the roles of advanced practice nursing. Be specific in identifying the evolution of each advanced practice nursing role and the timeline for the evolution of the educational requirements. Explore the factors impacting this evolution. Project the future advancement of each role.
- Explore the interprofessional dimension of advanced practice nursing roles. Perform a comprehensive literature review of the interprofessional dimensions of the roles. Compare and contrast these dimensions for each role. Have these dimensions changed over time? Is the role becoming stronger or weaker in these dimensions?
- Have the student write a paper defining each of the advanced practice roles. Which roles are more clearly defined? What factors impact the ability to clearly define the roles? Have students identify what is needed to be able to clearly define the roles.
- A primary example of an attempt to address the current issues in the profession and the nation is the Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree developed by the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in 2004. As originally proposed by AACN, the DNP would standardize practice entry requirements for all APNs by the year 2015. Have two groups of students develop the case for and against this proposed requirement for entry into practice. Have each group of students present its side to the class and debate the issue with input from the students in the class.
- Throughout the century, APNs have been permitted by organized medicine and state legislative bodies to provide care to the underserved poor, particularly in rural areas of the nation. Describe how this concept has helped or delayed the progress of advanced practice nurses as primary care providers.
Note: The discussion questions below can be used in either the classroom setting or for online discussions.
- What impact did war have on the development of advanced practice nursing? Identify
a specific war and explore the impact of the war on each of the roles of advanced practice nursing. Compare and contrast the impact of the war on each role. Were any of the roles enhanced by the impact of the war?
- How did the nursing profession itself interrupt nurses’ autonomy in practice in the mid-twentieth century? Explore how this interruption impacted advanced practice nursing at this time? Identify examples for each of the roles of advanced practice nursing.
- What factors contributed to the development of nurse anesthesia programs outside of mainstream nursing schools? How did these factors help or hinder the other roles of advanced practice nursing?
- It is often noted that nurses take on new diagnostic and therapeutic tasks when physicians are bored with the tasks (e.g., blood pressures). How did the Coronary Care Unit nurse’s role (e.g., reading ECGs, defibrillating) differ from the usual way in which a task was delegated?
- Documentation of the outcomes of practice helped establish the earliest specialties. Identify examples of documentation needed at this time to support the advanced practice nursing roles.
- The efforts of national professional organizations, national certification, and the move toward graduate education as a requirement for advanced practice have been critical to enhancing the credibility of advanced practice nursing. Describe the barriers and challenges that have slowed the progress of advanced practice nursing. Compare the credibility of the early role to the role at this time.